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The introduction includes three distinct subsections, although these are typically not identified by separate headings.The opening introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting, the literature review discusses relevant previous research, and the closing restates the research question and comments on the method used to answer it.Instead, it constitutes a kind of argument for why the research question is worth addressing.
At the end of the meeting, the friend’s mother was asked whether she had any questions.
She replied that she only had one question: “Should I tip? 3) Although both humour and personal anecdotes are generally discouraged in APA-style writing, this example is a highly effective way to start because it both engages the reader and provides an excellent real-world example of the topic under study.
This feeling of discomfort was called cognitive dissonance by social psychologist Leon Festinger (1957), who suggested that individuals will be motivated to remove this dissonance in whatever way they can (p. After capturing the reader’s attention, the opening should go on to introduce the research question and explain why it is interesting. He opened his article with the following humourous anecdote: A friend whose mother is suffering symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) tells the story of taking her mother to visit a nursing home, preliminary to her mother’s moving there.
During an orientation meeting at the nursing home, the rules and regulations were explained, one of which regarded the dining room.
Immediately after the opening comes the literature review, which describes relevant previous research on the topic and can be anywhere from several paragraphs to several pages in length.
However, the literature review is not simply a list of past studies.Individual researchers differ quite a bit in their preference for such titles.Some use them regularly, while others never use them.What might be some of the pros and cons of using cute article titles?For articles that are being submitted for publication, the title page also includes an author note that lists the authors’ full institutional affiliations, any acknowledgments the authors wish to make to agencies that funded the research or to colleagues who commented on it, and contact information for the authors.In some areas of psychology, the titles of many empirical research reports are informal in a way that is perhaps best described as “cute.” They usually take the form of a play on words or a well-known expression that relates to the topic under study.Here are some examples from recent issues of the Journal Psychological Science.Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure.For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories.Here we consider each of these sections in detail, including what information it contains, how that information is formatted and organized, and tips for writing each section.At the end of this section is a sample APA-style research report that illustrates many of these principles.