Essay About Urbanization

Essay About Urbanization-13
With a liberal definition of urban area adopted in 1951, the proportion of urban population suddenly rose to 17.6 per cent.But with a slightly strict definition, the proportion of urban population recorded a small increase to 18.3 per cent in 1961.

With a liberal definition of urban area adopted in 1951, the proportion of urban population suddenly rose to 17.6 per cent.

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If we compare degree of urbanisation in India with that of developed countries then we can find that India is lagging far behind the high-income countries. In India, towns are classified into six different classes.

In 1985, the proportion of urban population to total population was 92 per cent in U. From the census data, it has been observed that in Class I town (having a population more than 1 lakh) the proportion of urban population concentration has increased from 25.7 per cent in 1901 to 60.4 per cent in 1981.

Table 6.7 reveals the detailed picture of this trend in urbanisation.

Moreover, urbanisation has an increasing impact on the concentration of population towards relatively higher income categories.

But in the remaining Class IV, Class V and Class VI towns together, the relative proportion of urban population concentration declined sharply from 47.2 per cent in 1901 to only 13.6 per cent in 1981.

Besides continuation of urbanisation process, a number of Class II towns have been transformed into a Class I town and the number of Class I towns has thus increased from 74 in 1951 to 216 in 1981.Accordingly, the total population of Class I towns also increased from 273 lakhs in 1951 to 943 lakh in 1981 showing an increase of nearly 245 per cent.During the same period, the number of Class II towns has increased from 95 to 270 and that of Class III towns increased from 330 to 739 in 1981. The pace of urbanisation gradually declines only when the proportion of urban population to total population of the country becomes too high. The pace of urbanisation is fast if the industrial growth is fast. Due to social and economic pressures, people from backward villages started to move towards urbanised centres in search of job, where newly established industries and ancillary activities continuously offer job opportunities to those people migrating to cities. With the gradual growth of the economy, the process of urbanisation depends on the shift of surplus population from rural to urban areas along-with the growth of some industrialised urban centres.Therefore, urban areas have higher percentage of lower middle income, middle income, upper middle income and higher income group of people than that of rural areas. Thus it is found from Table 6.8 that the percentage of households in the lower middle income category was 34.75 per cent in urban areas as compared to that of 23.88 per cent in the rural areas.Similarly, the percentage of households in the middle income and the upper middle income categories were 17.89 per cent and 6.46 per cent in the urban areas as compared to that of only 7.06 per cent and 1.16 per cent in the rural areas.The provisional figure of total urban population of India in 2011 is estimated at 377 million which is estimated at 31.16 per cent of the total population of the country.Moreover, the total number of towns in India which was only 1627, gradually rose to 3060 in 1951, 3126 in 1971, 4029 in 1981 and then to 5166 in 2001.

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