Essay Cloning Wrong

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Dolly the sheep was produced at the Roslin Institute as part of research into producing medicines in the milk of farm animals.The development of cloning technology has led to new ways to produce medicines and is improving our understanding of development and genetics.Since 1996, when Dolly was born, other sheep have been cloned from adult cells, as have cats, rabbits, horses and donkeys, pigs, goats and cattle.About 1 in 6000 people is born with faulty mitochondria, which can result in diseases like muscular dystrophy.To prevent this, genetic material from the embryo is extracted and placed in an egg cell donated by another woman, which contains functioning mitochondria.This was a major scientific achievement as it demonstrated that the DNA from adult cells, despite having specialised as one particular type of cell, can be used to create an entire organism.Animal cloning from an adult cell is much more difficult than from an embryonic cell.They had to find a way to 'reprogram' the udder cells - to keep them alive but stop them growing – which they achieved by altering the growth medium (the ‘soup’ in which the cells were kept alive).Then they injected the cell into an unfertilised egg cell which had had its nucleus removed, and made the cells fuse by using electrical pulses.So when scientists working at the Roslin Institute in Scotland produced Dolly, the only lamb born from 277 attempts, it was a major news story around the world.To produce Dolly, scientists used an udder cell from a six-year-old Finn Dorset white sheep.

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