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Age also plays a part with intervertebral discs tending to lose some of their bulk and resilience along with a general weakening of the tendons and other connective tissues resulting in a looser joint more susceptible to inappropriate movement.Osteoarthritis may further damage the joints and abnormal bone growth may occur resulting in a remodelling of the joint.
Such spinal conditions are extremely common and some studies have produced estimates that around 12% of the general population suffer from some degree of spondylolisthesis.
Although anterolisthesis is sometimes described simply as an amount of vertebral displacement measured in millimetres, it is more commonly graded having reference to the percentage of slippage present.
In addition to physiotherapy, he would require postural training to maintain correct posture and anti-inflammatory medication to decrease inflammation around the area of disc extrusion.
He should avoid bending at waist, lifting any weights especially while bending forward and avoid pulling or pushing things. MRI can detect a retrolisthesis even in lying down position though a standing lateral x ray gives a better idea regarding the extent of listhesis compared to MRI done in supine position.
Grade 1 is the lowest grade and regarded as the least severe, although physical symptoms vary from person to person.
Grade 1 anterolisthesis may even exist as an asymptomatic (having no symptoms) condition.
In anterolisthesis, the actual body of the vertebra is involved (the drum shaped circle of bone that surrounds the spinal cord) rather than simply a part of the vertebra such as one of the various processes or appendages.
In cases where the vertebral displacement is due to trauma, such as in a car accident, it can occur at any point along the spine but it is by far the most commonly seen affecting the vertebrae of the lower spine where the lumbar vertebrae join the fused sacral vertebrae of the pelvis.
In many cases, injury to the pars may initially occur in the teenage years and then go unnoticed for many years with chronic symptoms appearing later in life.
In addition to accidents, high-impact sports may also result in pars injuries.