We have three main categories of rigid formwork made from wood boards, flexible resorting to the use of fabric membranes and a hybrid system utilizing small rigid parts articulated to a cable network.
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW The British engineer James Hardress of Warenne Waller (1884-1968) was the first to apply fabrics in the construction of concrete shells.
It aims to promote the theory and practice of engineering science and architectural management.
The Journal welcomes contributions which drive the exchange of ideas and rational discourse between educators and engineering researchers all over the world.
The weight of coating mortar generates a ripple that characterizes this process and acts as a lost formwork.
The system was competitive for their low production costs and its implementation did not require intensive labour.
In order to ensure our content is freely available for the benefit of a wider audience while uncompromising our journal quality, an Article Processing Charge (APC) is applicable to all authors who wish to submit their articles to the journal.
The APC is intended to cover the underlying costs of article processing, such as peer-review, copyediting, typesetting, publishing, content depositing and archiving processes.